The End of an American Dream: Why France Sold Louisiana

220 years ago on April 30, 1803, France and the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase. This article details the reasons why Napoleon sold this territory.

Why France Lost in 1940

80 years ago, France suffered from what probably was the most crushing defeat in its history. How did this prime military power lose so quickly? Click to find out.

The Myth of Dunkirk: What if the Germans Had Not Stopped

It is often believed that the German halt order is what enabled the Allies to escape Dunkirk. However, a careful analysis reveals otherwise: that the evacuation of Dunkirk was a success because of the amazing resilience, adaptability, and clairvoyance of the Allies.

The Importance of the Strategic Level: Germany in the Second World War

When looking at the different German levels of war, what mostly doomed Germany is its ideology-inspired, apocalyptic, and unrealistic strategy. Germany in the Second World War provides an illustration of why the strategic level is essential.

The Importance of the Tactical Level: The Arab-Israeli War of 1973

The Arab-Israeli War of 1973 showcases what can happen when an attacker, despite crushing numerical superiority and key advantages such as strategic surprise and a two-front offensive, is unable to prevail because of poor tactics.

The Importance of the Operational Level: The Ludendorff Offensives of 1918

The German offensives of March-July 1918 demonstrated the German ability to achieve great tactical success. However, the offensives were an utter operational and strategic failure. One of the main reasons is the inability of Ludendorff to follow the stated operational aims.

The Continuation of Politics by Other Means: France in the Second World War

When it comes to France in World War II, most studies naturally and understandably focus on its dramatic defeat in 1940. However, the general public seems to forget about a more lasting outcome: how France managed to gain a seat amongst the victors of the war.